Both smartphones and tablet computers were often used at home by the adolescents; but in school or in the community, a smartphone was often brought and used outdoors instead, as it was more portable than a tablet. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Transcripts were coded independently by one of the authors SHT and reviewed by another author EKH , using NVivo 11 software based on areas of research questions, i. They used them for personal activities e. Then after a while, I will come out and use my phone again… then I go and do my work. Some adolescents reported being compliant with the measures at times which helped to prevent them from using MTSDs excessively.

No one to control me. Recruitment continued until data saturation occurred, when no new information was being obtained across three consecutive interviews [ 34 , 35 ]. MTSDs were also frequently used for daily functions, e. However, negative outcomes such as impaired learning [ 45 ], reduced academic performance [ 42 ], poorer social and psychological well-being [ 46 ] have been associated with multitasking. Support Center Support Center. Examples of how they used MTSD frequently throughout the day are:. Sometimes I will ask my parents [I want to] play a little bit more please.

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Smartphone was the most common mobile device owned and used by many of the adolescents, while only some used a tablet. Many adolescents used MTSDs ubiquitously at various locations, and frequently throughout the day upon waking up in the morning, in school and at home, even when outdoors or while commuting.

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Teens, social media and technology overview Livingstone S, Helsper EJ. Inclusion criteria for adolescents were: Interviews were recorded and transcribed.

Many adolescents reported multitasking with other tasks, e.

SHT was responsible for the study design, data collection, data analysis and drafting the manuscript. Whilst the focus of this study was the perspectives from adolescents on their MTSD use, perspectives from their parents were also sought in order to provide triangulation and to give greater context to data obtained from adolescents [ 33 ].


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Australia and other nations are failing to meet sedentary behaviour guidelines for children: Content analysis and thematic analysis: J Child Media ;11 1: General household survey Adolescent, Mobile touch screen device, Smartphone, Tablet computer, Qualitative research. Portability of homewlrk could also affect the types of MTSD used at various locations. They were thus limited in their use of social media, messaging, online games or browsing on their MTSDs, and homrwork only able to make phone calls, play games or watch videos that they had already downloaded on their MTSDs.

Breaks were usually perceived by the adolescents as the time when they stopped using MTSDs, rather than a conscious effort to take a break. Homework was one of the common tasks where adolescents reported using MTSDs intermittently. What is an adequate sample size? This means that beyond simply solving mtsd homestead homework page book wbe expected to show their understanding in more than one waywhile bringing them to the same or mtsd homestead homework page 1 conclusion s.

Yeah so, we have certain rules, then she not happy, we also not happy. Adolescents who were more occupied on certain weekends and weekdays with more homework, studying especially during exam periods, school extra-curricular activities, tuition, sports or outings with family or friends reported that they did not have as much time available to use MTSDs, and hence did not use them as much as other days when they had more free time available.

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Four of the parents were not interviewed as they did not speak English. However, some of these adolescents reported difficulties with adhering to the measures, as they sometimes also became carried away with what they were doing on their MTSDs and ended up overusing homewotk.


Findings in this study strongly suggest that some adolescents were very attached to and unable to resist using their MTSDs, especially smartphone.

It is also important to consider the types of activities that the adolescents engage with on MTSDs that draw them into continued use. Otherwise, they might feel uncomfortable or not able to concentrate on the tasks that they were doing: So I have to hold my phone in my hand…hold[ing] in your hand has [created] temptation to keep using [the] phone. As seen from our data, incoming notifications, messages or updates received were often a source of irresistibility to use MTSDs.

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Sometimes if I am not listening to song, I [will] just watch video, put the video [phone] over here…and do work [homework].

Moreover, perspectives from parents were sought which helped to triangulate data obtained from the adolescents and to indicate important discrepancies between the perceptions of the adolescent and the parent.

They also engaged in online browsing, games, video watching or listening to music, for example: They also used MTSDs to browse the internet on areas of interest e. Consent for publication For adolescents aged 11 to 17 years, written informed parental consent and written youth assent were obtained. Teens’ ownership of smartphones has surged. Communications A, Authority M. Hence, some adolescents were not conscious of taking breaks and usually stopped using only when they need to carry out other tasks or activities: